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Viewing entries from category: Film Distribution

International Film Styles: Neorealism »

James Clarke | Friday September 04, 2015

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section A: World Cinema, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, Kes, World Cinema, Rome, Open City, Genres & Case Studies, Neorealism, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

Across the varied and diverse ways in which a film text can encode and emphasise meanings and a specific viewpoint on or presentation of a subject, realism is a key aesthetic and formal choice and approach that has functioned as a key creative direction of so much western expression across literature and the visual arts. This resource, then, explores the characteristics of a particular film style that we call neorealism. It stems from post World War Two Italian cinema and its influence has been felt in cinemas around the world.

In exploring two films as our key texts in...

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WJEC AS FM2 British & American Film Producers and Audiences Resource Items »

Rob Miller | Wednesday October 08, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM1, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Section C: US Film Comparative Study, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Hot Entries

FM2: British and American Film ‘How to Respond to Section A - Producers and Audiences: Resource Items’

This resource examines approaches to Section A of FM2 in terms of areas of questioning but specifically, how to respond to the range of stimulus WJEC could use, and expect students to refer to in Part A and Part B of the resource items.

The section title, ‘Producers and Audiences’ is important in letting students know the type of response expected in the exam – an equal engagement with both film producers and film audience is expected in both questions (there will...

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Happy Together (Hong Kong 1997) Case Study »

James Clarke | Tuesday October 07, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section C: Single Film Critical Study, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Films & Case Studies, World Cinema, Happy Together, Genres & Case Studies, Drama, Romance, Hot Entries, Theory, Auteur Theory, Queer Theory

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FM4: Varieties of Film Experience – Issues and Debates Section C: Single Film – Critical Study

Introduction

Happy Together is a feature film directed by Wong Kar-wai. It was released in 1997, the year that Hong Kong’s governance from Britain ended and governance from China began. The fact that Happy Together begins with passports being stamped might well resonate with Hong Kong audiences particularly with when the film was released. We might suggest that a passport is a very tangible symbol of national identity. The film is encoded...[ read full article ] »


WJEC AS Film Studies FM2 Section A Producers and Audiences Exemplar »

Rob Miller | Monday October 06, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Hot Entries

Associated Resources

  • WJEC AS Level Film Studies FM2 Exemplar Resource Material A.docx
  • WJEC AS Level Film Studies FM2 Exemplar Resource Material B.docx

Instructions

  • Section A refers to the resource material (see associated resources)
  • This is a Section A exemplar only
  • Each question carries 40 marks
  • You are reminded that assessment will take into account the quality of written communication used in your answers

Section A:  Producers and Audiences

EITHER:

1. Study the items in Part A of the resource material which includes the logo of Working Title Films (UK) and Universal...

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WJEC AS Film Studies FM2 US Cinema Comparative Study: Minority Report and Blade Runner »

Rob Miller | Monday October 06, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section C: US Film Comparative Study, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Films & Case Studies, American, Blade Runner, Hollywood Films, Minority Report, Genres & Case Studies, Action, Mystery, Science Fiction, Thriller, Hot Entries

Introduction

One of the most interesting ways to engage with genre is to select two films from the same genre and compare and contrast them. Critically, select two films produced in significantly different time periods and places - by doing this kind of analytical exercise we’re able to go some distance in identifying some of the ways in which a genre evolves.

Science fiction film certainly seems to offer a particularly rich case study in terms of what kinds of ideas texts can be encoded with how we, as the audience (in our own particular times and places) can then...

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Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (1971) Case Study »

Rob Miller | Monday September 22, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section C: Single Film Critical Study, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, Genres & Case Studies, Crime, Drama, Independent, Thriller, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Representation

FM4: Varieties of Film Experience – Issues and Debates Section C: Single Film – Critical Study

Section C of FM4 offers students the ability to engage in a critical study of a single film, within a synoptic framework – this means the micro and the macro features need to be studied, as well as issues of representation. Useful will be placing the film in an institutional and cultural context in reference to production, funding distribution, audience, audience reception but also genre and narrative. WJEC do provide, on request a short Reader on each film with a number...

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Julie Christie: British Film and Stars »

James Clarke | Tuesday February 11, 2014

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation, Theory, Film Theory

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While we often first think and refer to contemporary examples of film stars when we study film, it’s useful and valuable to consider film stars whose work has featured across several decades. More specifically for us as British audiences, it’s of particular interest to consider British film stars both in terms of the interest of their performances, and also in terms of how these performances offer representations of national identity and gender in combination. Stars are media texts that are encoded and can be decoded for their meanings and...

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British Film and Genre (Horror and Comedy) »

Rob Miller | Wednesday December 04, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Hollywood Films, 28 Days Later, Non-Hollywood Films, Four Lions, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Comedy, Horror, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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The British Film Industry is successful and thriving but as Jill Nelmes identified in An Introduction to Film Studies can be defined on a number or levels and by a range of “disparate films, genres and movements”. In addition to this there are arguments over what is a British Film and as such, there have been many attempts to define British Film over the years. A useful definition that the BFI proposed in 1996 was that films could be described and culturally and/or institutionally British e.g. commercially successful British Films like the...

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The Impact of World War Two on British Cinema »

James Clarke | Tuesday December 03, 2013

Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR AS, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, In Which We Serve, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Genres & Case Studies, Drama, Romance, War, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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World War Two impacted ferociously on Great Britain: cities were attacked by German bombers, air battles were fought and daily life was severely tested over the six years of conflict. It’s understandable though, if the war seems a long, long time ago to you. Cinema, however, offers us a meaningful way to reconnect with, and reflect on the event and to develop a sense of the relationship between World War Two and British cinema. Attendance at cinemas was acutely influenced by the war and, perhaps most interestingly, in terms of the kinds of film...

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Spectatorship and Early Cinema Before 1917 »

James Clarke | Saturday November 30, 2013

Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR A2, OCR AS, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section B: Spectatorship Topics, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation, Theory, Spectatorship Theory

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Cinema is now nearly 120 years old and it’s a magnificently broad, deep, complex and exciting subject.

It’s understandably easy to think that the way films are now is how they have always been, in terms of their technology and particularly how they organize (tell) their stories. However, this isn’t the case and so it’s important for us to be aware that all forms of cultural expression evolve across time and that they are subject to many influences, intended or not. Understanding how cinema began might, in fact, give us some feeling for...

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Developments in 21st Century Cinema and Film (2000-Present) »

James Clarke | Wednesday November 27, 2013

Categories: A Level, OCR A Level, OCR A2, OCR AS, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, WJEC A2, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Censorship & Regulation, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Hollywood Films, Avatar, World Cinema, Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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Film is technology. It’s an obvious point, and an essential one.

Film established itself as a symbol of the modern, mechanical age of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and so it is particularly interesting to now witness how the medium is moving into the digital age. Indeed, we should perhaps talk not of new technology but of now technology because it is so quickly ever changing and evolving. In Western Europe we live in an increasingly digital and electronic age and since 2000 the film industry has witnessed the rapid impact of...

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Aspects of National Cinema: Japanese Cinema »

James Clarke | Monday November 25, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section A: World Cinema, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, World Cinema, Grave of the Fireflies, Seven Samurai, Genres & Case Studies, Japanese, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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WJEC A2 Film Studies FM4 Section A World Cinema: Aspects of National Cinema

Japanese cinema can be understood as a major presence in the international film style context, not only in terms of its own achievement but also for the influence it has exerted on cinema far beyond its borders.  It’s a national cinema with a very specific set of concerns and stylistic traits and with a number of particular contexts that allow the film texts to be understood in all the more interesting ways. In saying that there is such a thing as international cinema,...

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Living with Crime »

James Clarke | Friday March 22, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, London to Brighton, Sweet Sixteen, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Crime, Independent, Social Realism, Thriller, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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Crime and cinema have a longstanding relationship.

Going right back to early cinema one of the landmark silent films was The Great Train Robbery (1903). There is a shot in that film which is overtly referenced as the last shot that we see in the American crime film GoodFellas (1990).

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However, whereas we might argue that the criminal life that’s represented in the Hollywood-produced GoodFellas is somewhat glamourised and told in an overtly artificial way (think of how music is used and, for example, the very...

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International Film Styles: French New Wave »

James Clarke | Thursday March 21, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section A: World Cinema, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Cinema in Context, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, World Cinema, À Bout de Souffle, Les Quatre Cents Coups, Genres & Case Studies, French New Wave, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation

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In 1950, when he was only nineteen years old, Jean-Luc Godard, one day to become one the great filmmakers, wrote a piece for the French publication Gazette du Cinema called Towards A Political Cinema. Even at this young age, Godard was aware of cinema’s power to communicate ideas.

Jean-Luc Godard examines a strip of film

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Film history describes a wide range of film movements that have each had an often-short lifespan that’s been quite specific but the legacies of which have endured.

A movement in film, or indeed...

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International Film Styles: 1920s Soviet Cinema »

James Clarke | Friday March 08, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC A2, FM4, Section A: World Cinema, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, World Cinema, Battleship Potemkin, Man With A Movie Camera, Genres & Case Studies, Documentary, Realism, Social Realism, Soviet Montage

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Cinema is always evolving.

The constantly changing quality of film styles is exciting and since the beginnings of film history many nations around the world have developed their own distinct cinematic style and this continues today in the twenty-first century.

During the early part of the twentieth century one country that contributed very significantly to the development of early cinema, was Russia and now, in 2013, almost a century later, the particular film style that emerged from Russia continues to be an essential stylistic approach that...

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British Film Identity Study: Borders & Belonging »

James Clarke | Friday March 08, 2013

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film History, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, Dirty Pretty Things, Gypo, This is England, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Social Realism

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Introduction

National identity and cinema are inextricably connected around the world. Within this national cinema dynamic is to be found the question of what it might mean to ‘be British’, or, more specifically, English. It’s a question that’s the basis of a longstanding narrative that relates powerfully to our filmic identity and, more immediately, our identity as an island nation, physically and culturally (and economically) separate to the mainland of Europe.

If you watch, read or listen to the news (itself a set of constructed...

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Ewan McGregor: British Film and Stars »

James Clarke | Thursday December 20, 2012

Categories: A Level, WJEC A Level, WJEC AS, FM2, Section B: British Film Topics, Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Non-Hollywood Films, Trainspotting, Genres & Case Studies, British Film, Social Realism, Hot Entries, Key Concepts, Audience, Film Language, Representation, Theory, Film Theory

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Ewan McGregor is a major British film star who has appeared in a wide range of films that have been released globally since 1994. His career has combined performances in a range of lower budgeted feature films and work in highly budgeted, event films released by the major film studios. Over the course of almost twenty years McGregor has appeared in nearly fifty films.

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Professionally trained as an actor at London’s Guildhall, McGregor hails from Scotland and the narrative of his career progression from provincial Scotland to being an internationally recognized film star...

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What is Synergy? »

Viki Walden | Thursday November 10, 2011

Categories: Analysis, Film Analysis, Film Industry, Copyright & Licensing, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Hot Entries

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The basic concept of Synergy can be explained through this mathematical formula:

1+1=3

Whilst this may not make sense to mathematicians, in business it does, when we think of profit value. If you sell two separate products, for example a video game and a film, they could both do very well, giving you a profit of £200 million each.

However if the video game and film were linked, i.e. both Harry Potter projects, this is synergy because the profit value of each will be more, perhaps £300 million each. Therefore the product value of intertied products is more than the...

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Marketing a Blockbuster | Star Trek Paramount Pictures UK »

Rob Miller | Wednesday November 09, 2011

Categories: Film Industry, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion, Production Companies, Films & Case Studies, Hollywood Films, Star Trek, Genres & Case Studies, Action, Action Adventure, Adventure, Science Fiction, Hot Entries

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The main aspects of marketing are:

  • PR: offline/online
  • Media: budget, targeting TV, press, radio, outdoor, interactive
  • Research: NRG, Fame, TGI
  • Creative: trailer, POS, print, TV/radio, interactive, strategy.

The main aim of marketing is to draw people into the film, but also to target audiences who the company believe will make it a blockbuster.

Star Trek provides a very valuable franchise, which has spanned a large period of time. Overall (in terms of films and TV series), the franchise is worth £49.9m in total for the UK box office.

The last two Star Trek films have...

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Film Distribution »

Viki Walden | Sunday August 28, 2011

Categories: Hot Entries, Film Distribution, Film Marketing, Film Publicity, Film Promotion

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Process Of Attaching A Distributor

Distribution is fundamental for a film to make profit, or even break even on its costs. A distribution company may be attached to a project during pre-production, especially for Studio productions for which the distribution company will most likely be a sister company of the production company. However, in the independent industry getting distribution can be a significant challenge. Sometimes a distribution company will be attached from the outset; this will significantly help the independent production company attract financiers. Often...

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